The intracellular levels of malonyl-CoA represent a balance between its synthesis from acetyl-CoA by ACC and its utilization in fatty acid synthesis by FAS as well as by its degradation to acetyl-CoA via the action of malonyl-CoA decarboxylase (MCD). Indeed, MCD is involved in regulating malonyl-CoA levels in multiple tissues. MCD is found in the cytosol, the mitochondria, and in peroxisomes. The MCD enzyme is encoded by the MLYCD gene located on chromosome 16q24 and is composed of 5 exons encoding a protein of 493 amino acids. Inhibition of MCD results in reduced rates of fatty acid oxidation in highly oxidative tissues such as the heart. As well, MCD inhibition leads to reduced triacylglyceride content in lipid synthesizing tissues such as the liver. When hypothalamic MCD levels are experimentally increased in laboratory animals there is a dramatic increase in food intake, weight gain, and ultimately results in obesity. Conversely, inactivation of the MCD gene in mice protects the animals from high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Additionally, chemical inhibition of MCD leads to reduced macrophage-associated inflammation in conditions of insulin resistance. The primary mechanism for this effect appears to be via the accumulation of long-chain fatty acids which in turn activate PPARα.
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4. POST-TREATMENTS 4a. CHEMICAL POST-TREATMENTS
[CHROMATE CONVERSION COATINGS, RUST PREVENTATIVES, PATINAS]
Phytic acid (IP6 or phytate), a derivative of inositol with six phosphate groups, is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues , especially bran and seed .  Neither the inositol nor the phosphate in phytic acid in plants is available to humans, or to animals that are not ruminants, since it cannot be broken down, except by bacteria. Moreover, phytic acid also chelates important minerals such as calcium , magnesium , iron , and zinc , making them unabsorbable, and contributing to mineral deficiencies in people whose diets rely highly on bran and seeds for their mineral intake, such as occurs in developing countries .